Angiosperms have alternation of generations with the 2n(diploid)  sporophyte generation being the dominant generation. The anthers(male), which are the equivalent of microsporangia, produce microspores by meiosis, and the microspores develop into male gametophyte (pollen).

The ovaries(female), which are the megasporangia, produce megaspores which grow into female gametophytes, each of which then produces an egg..

By some means (wind or an animal pollinator), the pollen is transferred to the stigma of the pistil, and a pollen tube grows down into the ovary. Eventually, two sperm nuclei travel down the pollen tube. Pollination is the transfer of the male gametophyte (pollen) to the stigma of the female, while fertilization is when the sperm nucleus and egg nucleus unite.



Angiosperms have an unusual thing called double fertilization. When the sperm nuclei reach the female gametophyte, one sperm nucleus and the egg cell unite to form a new 2n zygote (which grows into an embryo). The other sperm nucleus and two nuclei from the female gametophyte join to form 3n ( triploid: one sperm nucleus and the two nuclei) endosperm which often serves as food for the embryo.

The embryo sporophyte consists of:

    • one or two nutrient-storage areas called cotyledons which are in contact with (and absorb nutrients from) the 3n endosperm. Seeds of some species, notably the monocots (think: wheat, corn), store their nutrients primarily in the endosperm, having very small cotyledon(s) which only absorb nutrients from the endosperm as needed, while other seeds, including many of the dicots (think: walnut), store most of their nutrients in their cotyledons and the endosperm is very small, often reduced to a papery coating (like that of a peanut).
  • the epicotyl (epi = upon, over), which is the region above the cotyledon(s), and which will become the stem and leaves,
  • the hypocotyl (hypo = under, beneath), which is the region under the cotyledon(s). The lower end of the hypocotyl, which becomes the root system, is called the radicle ( root like).




McKenna Brady thinks her junior year of high school is going to be the best ever when she’s welcomed into the elite group of popular girls at Weeping Willow High School led by blond, gorgeous Olivia Richmond.

Prior to junior year, McKenna was known in her small town as the girl whose twin sister died in a tragic house fire, and she’s overjoyed at the prospect of redefining her identity. She has a date to the Homecoming dance with Olivia’s handsome older brother, and a good chance of being elected to student council. For the first time since McKenna’s parents divorced, things are looking up.

But everything changes the night of Olivia’s Sweet Sixteen sleepover birthday party. Hannah, the shy, mysterious new girl in town, suggests that the girls play a scary game called Light as a Feather, Stiff as a Board, during which Hannah makes up elaborate stories about the future ways in which beautiful Olivia, brassy Candace, and athletic Mischa will die. The game unsettles McKenna because she’s already escaped death once in her life, but she doesn’t want to ruin her friends’ fun. It’s only a game, she reminds herself.

But it doesn’t seem like a harmless game a week later when Olivia dies unexpectedly in a violent car crash, exactly as Hannah predicted. And something begins haunting McKenna’s bedroom at night, leaving her clues that all seem to point to Hannah. McKenna enlists the help of her cute next-door neighbor Trey in finding out exactly what kind of curse Hannah has put on all of the popular girls in the junior class.

As Hannah rises to popularity and seemingly steps into the life Olivia left unfinished, McKenna and Trey know they only have a limited amount of time to bring an end to Hannah’s game before more lives are lost.


I watched this movie tomorrow and one of the best movies ever!!! Here is a bit of  the beginning scenes of the movie:


In April 1938, a voice representing the Angel of Death (Roger Allam), tells about how the young Liesel Meminger (Sophie Nélisse) has piqued his interest. Liesel is traveling on a train with mother (Heike Makatsch) and younger brother when her brother dies. At his burial she picks up a book that has been dropped by his graveside (a gravedigger’s manual). Liesel is then delivered to foster parents Hans (Geoffrey Rush) and Rosa (Emily Watson) Hubermann, because her mother, a Communist, is in danger. When she arrives, Liesel makes an impression on a neighbor boy, Rudy Steiner (Nico Liersch).

Rudy accompanies her on her first day of school. When the teacher asks Liesel to write her name on the chalkboard, she is only able to write three ‘X’s, showing that she doesn’t know how to read. Later that day, she is taunted by her schoolmates who chant “dummkopf”, “fool” in German. One of the boys, Franz Deutscher, challenges her to read just one word to which Liesel responds by beating him up. She impresses Rudy and they become fast friends. When Hans, her stepfather, realizes that Liesel cannot read, he begins to teach her, using the book that she took from the graveside. Liesel becomes obsessed with reading anything she can get her hands on.

Liesel and Rudy become members of the Hitler Youth movement. While at a Nazi book burning ceremony, Liesel and Rudy are bullied into throwing books onto the bonfire by Franz, but Liesel is upset to see the books being burned. When the bonfire ends and everyone but she has left, she grabs a book that has not been burned. She is seen by Ilsa Hermann (Barbara Auer), the mayor’s (Rainer Bock) wife.

Hans discovers that she has taken the book and tells her she must keep it a secret from everyone. One day, Rosa, her stepmother, asks Liesel to take the laundry to the mayor’s house. Liesel realizes that the woman who saw her taking the


book is the mayor’s wife and she is scared she will be found out. Instead, Ilsa takes her into their library and tells Liesel she can come by anytime and read as much as she’d like. Liesel also finds out about Johann here, who was the son of Ilsa and is now missing. She realizes Ilsa feels deeply about the loss of her son and thus, had made a library to commemorate him. One day Liesel is found reading by the mayor who not only puts a stop to her visits but dismisses Rosa as their laundress. Liesel continues to “borrow” books from the mayor’s library by climbing through a window.

For the rest, watch the movie….




Cnidaria means needle from Greek word knide. There are about 10,000 species mostly marine.


Cnidarians (Cnidaria) are a group of aquatic animals that includes jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and hydras. The basic form of the cnidarian body is quite simple and consists of a gastrovascular cavity with a single opening through which food is ingested and waste is released. Cnidarians are radially symmetrical (a basic body plan in which the organism can be divided into similar halves by passing a plane at any angle along a central axis) and they have tentacles that encircle their mouth.


The body wall of cnidarians consists of an outer layer or epidermis, an inner layer or gastrodermis(the inner layer of cells that lines a gastrovascular cavity ), and a middle layer or mesoglea(translucent, non-living, jelly-like substance found between the two epithelial cell layers in the bodies of coelenterates). Continue reading



Platyhelminthes are also known as the Flatworms.They are the simplest animals that are bilaterally symmetrical ( if cut in only one plane, the two cut halves are mirror images of each other) and triploblastic (composed of three fundamental cell layers).

Flatworms have no body cavity( coelom) other than the gut (and the smallest free-living forms may even lack that) and lack an anus; the same pharyngeal opening both takes in food and expels waste. Because of the lack of any other body cavity, in larger flatworms the gut is often very highly branched in order to transport food to all parts of the body. The lack of a cavity also constrains flatworms to be flat; they must respire by diffusion, and no cell can be too far from the outside, making a flattened shape necessary.

 Recent molecular studies suggest that the Platyhelminthes as a whole may even be polyphyletic, having arisen as two independent groups from different ancestral groups. If this view is correct, then most of the flatworms may belong to the Lophotrochozoa, a large group within the animal kingdom that includes Continue reading



Where rainbows end is a story told through letters, emails and instant messaging about the ever changing relationship between the two main characters Rosie Dunne and Alex Stewart. Rosie and Alex are close friends from childhood but one day they are suddenly separated when Alex and his family move from Dublin to Boston.  This book is about two people who seem to be destined to be together from the very beginning, even as small children. We see their relationship develop and grow through weddings, births, and deaths and watch as misunderstandings keep them apart. Where Rainbows End leads us to believe that Rosie and Alex may never be together and the circumstances are just too complicated, but fate just can’t stop meddling. 

The book guides us through their relationship as it continues to change due to distance, new relationships and circumstances which seem determined to keep them apart. One question remains throughout the book, were they always meant to be more than friends and will they risk everything including their friendship on love?




Today, on 25th December 2013, it’s the 137th Birthday of biggest and most honorable Pakistani National Hero ever, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the day is called Jinnah Day. Pakistanis from all over world are posting statuses, tweeting about Jinnah Day and sharing their view about the amazing personality on social media websites. Read the details after the jump.

Happy Birthday!! Our beloved founder… May Allah Almighty present you a place in Heaven…

Nigah-e-Mard-E-Moman Se Badal Jati Hain Taqdeerain 
Jo Ho Zoq-E-Yaqeen Paida Tu Kat Jati Hain Zanjeerain 
25th Dec. a Day Of Pride For All Muslims.. 
May Allah Give Us Wisdom And Knowledge To Built Pakistan According To The Ideas of Quaid. 
Quaid-e-Azam… Zinda Baad 
Pakistan… Painda Baad



A good and humorous movie which tells us a valuable lesson about the consequences of the words we speak…

Eddie Murphy is Jack McCall, a fast-talking literary agent, who can close any deal, any time, any way. He has set his sights on New Age guru Dr. Sinja (Cliff Curtis) for his own selfish purposes. But Dr. Sinja is on to him, and Jack’s life comes unglued after a magical Bodhi tree mysteriously appears in his backyard. With every word Jack speaks, a leaf falls from the tree and he realizes that when the last leaf falls, both he and the tree are toast. Words have never failed Jack McCall, but now he’s got to stop talking and conjure up some outrageous ways to communicate or he’s a goner.

A must watch movie…



Plant them in the fall and you can harvest them in the summer…

Planting Garlic: Step 1
Break a garlic bulb apart into individual cloves, being careful to keep the papery skins covering each


clove intact. Then fill a quart jar with water and mix in 1 tablespoon of baking soda and 1 tablespoon of liquid seaweed. Soak the cloves in this mixture for 2 hours prior to planting to prevent fungal disease and encourage vigorous growth.


In the meantime, prepare your bed for planting. Garlic grows best in rich, well-drained soil that is free of weeds. Dig a furrow about 3 inches deep. Place the presoaked cloves into the furrow, spacing them 6 to 8 inches apart. Be sure the flat root end is down and the pointy end is up.

Cover the cloves with 2 inches of soil and side-dress the furrow with compost or scratch in granulated organic fertilizer. Water the bed in well and cover it with 6 to 8 inches of straw mulch. You should see shoots poking through the mulch in 4 to 6 weeks. The garlic stops growing in the winter months and resumes in spring.